2011-05-28

    #arseniclife, o cómo funciona la ciencia y su comunicación

    "Hallada una nueva forma de vida en la Tierra", dijo Público. "Una bacteria que vive con el arsénico amplía la receta de la vida", aclaraba El País. Era principio de diciembre del año pasado y la NASA había convocado una rueda de prensa para "para tratar de un descubrimiento astrobiológico de impacto en la busca de pruebas de vida extraterrestre". Los rumores corrieron como la pólvora por Internet, si bien algunos como Javier Armentia, quizá dotados de un buen instinto periodístico, quizá poseedores de información privilegiada, seguramente ambas cosas, supieron rastrear las pistas dejadas entrever en el comunicado hasta su auténtico contenido: la futura publicación en Science de un artículo científico que afirmaba la existencia de una cepa bacteriana capaz de sobrevivir y reproducirse en un medio con arsénico y sin fósforo.

    No es como si hubiesen encontrado a E.T., pero el hallazgo era un notición en toda regla. El fósforo es un elemento esencial para la vida, forma parte de la estructura del ADN y las reacciones de fosforilación-desfosforilación son la herramienta química que aporta energía para el funcionamiento de la célula. Sin fósforo no hay vida tal y como la conocemos. El arsénico es un elemento altamente tóxico. Su química es en cierto modo parecida a la del fósforo, pero difiere en puntos cruciales. Algunos organismos han desarrollado cierta resistencia como adaptación a medios en los que hay presencia de arsénico pero el anuncio de la NASA iba más allá: un microorganismo capaz de sustituir el fósforo por arsénico. Una nueva forma de vida en toda regla. De ser cierto, claro.

    Afirmaciones extraordinarias requieren pruebas extraordinarias, así que no tardaron en surgir los escépticos. Científicos, activos tanto en el laboratorio como en la red, usaron sus blogs para airear serias dudas sobre la validez de las afirmaciones vertidas tanto en el paper como en la rueda de prensa. #arseniclife pasó de ser un trending topic twittero a una etiqueta bajo la que discutir en las redes sociales la veracidad del artículo, poniendo en cuestión desde la presencia de fósforo residual en los medios de cultivo hasta las técnicas de purificación del ADN analizado.

    Curiosamente los medios tradicionales, pese a tener información por adelantado acerca del descubrimiento, no fueron capaces de encontrar a expertos independientes capaces de articular críticas. El proceso de embargo, que tiene la ventaja de darle tiempo al periodista para trabajar la noticia con cierto margen de tiempo, también tiene el inconveniente de que los expertos con los que este trata de contactar no han tenido acceso al material científico a punto de ser publicado. Un cauto optimismo es la respuesta más prudente (y frecuente) que podemos obtener.  Algunos se dejan llevar, fiándose del proceso de publicación, y tras una rápida ojeada al material especulan sobre su relevancia, dando al periodista magníficas citas que entrecomillar mas allá del soso "de confirmarse, este descubrimiento será una buena noticia para..."

    Contactados por numerosos periodistas científicos, los autores del estudio declinaron comentar los criticismos alegando que sólo lo harían caso a las réplicas levantadas en la esfera de la publicación científica revisada por pares, no en la blogosfera. Carl Zimmer reunió un buen número de críticas en un demoledor "Este artículo no debería haberse publicado". La prensa escrita por fin se hizo eco del criticismo y los investigadores finalmente cedieron e hicieron públicas sus respuestas a algunas de las críticas.

    Seis meses después, el artículo original por fin aparece publicado en la revista Science, junto con nada menos que ocho críticas independientes así como la contrarréplica dada a las mismas por los responsables del hallazgo. Rosie Redfield, de la Universidad de la Columbia Británica (Canadá), fue una de las primeras en responder en Internet y es autora de uno de los "comentarios técnicos" que publicará ahora Science. En su blog ya ha publicado su opinión sobre la contrarréplica, que considera insatisfactoria, así como qué hacer con las muestras de la cepa bacteriana obtenida para determinar si de verdad pueden crecer con arsénico en lugar de fósforo o no.

    Así es como trabaja la ciencia, un artículo no es la verdad revelada, por mucho que aparezca en Nature o Science, es un paso más en el gradual avance del conocimiento. Unos científicos descubren algo, lo hacen público, el resto de la comunidad opina al respecto. Réplicas o nuevos experimentos confirmarán o refutarán lo publicado.

    ¿Cuándo se produce entonces el momento noticiable de un descubrimiento? ¿Cuándo puede un periodista decir "científicos descubren..." ¿Cuando el investigador se da cuenta de lo que tiene entre manos? ¿Cuando otros revisan su trabajo? ¿Cuando una editorial decide colgar en Internet el informe o por fin imprimirlo y llevarlo a los kioskos? ¿Cuando otros replican el experimento o validan la teoría con algo que se deduzca de ella?

    John Rennie, ex-editor en jefe de Scientific American, opina que habría que acabar con el sistema de embargos, que los medios deberían autoimponerse un periodo de seis meses tras la publicación de un artículo para hablar de él. Así se evitarían casos como este del arsénico, se podría contar con mejores comentarios de expertos una vez la importancia de lo publicado haya sido establecida en la comunidad científica. Y como la actualidad dejaría de ser un criterio a la hora de publicar, los periodistas podrían centrarse en cribar mejor y poner en perspectiva los descubrimientos, descartando algunos, acumulando otros en historias aún mayores.

    Otra opción es hacer todo el proceso público, accesible para toda la sociedad. Carl Zimmer cree que el caso del arsénico marca un punto de inflexión en el propio funcionamiento de la comunidad científica, la emergencia del "post-publication peer review". Antes el debate sobre los artículos se ceñía a la revisión previa a la publicación y en unos contados casos las revistas publicaban algunas críticas meses después. El mayor test de la relevancia de una investigación se cifraba con el número de citas acumuladas en trabajos posteriores. Ahora Internet permite que la comunidad debata en público la relevancia de un artículo sin tener que esperar a que exista la revista física en que salga publicado.

    Científicos comentando el trabajo de otros, y periodistas hablando de ello, forman parte del propio proceso científico. Las mismas editoriales que antes permitían la difusión del conocimiento, al negar el acceso a la información, se convierten en un lastre para el avance de la ciencia con sus fechas de publicación y política de embargos. Pero la sociedad en su conjunto también tiene que aprender cómo funciona la ciencia, entender que no proporciona absolutos sino una corriente de conocimiento siempre sujeta a cambios en el sentido de su flujo.



    Más enlaces sobre #arseniclife:
    Science Insider
    Nature News
    NewScientist's Short Sharp Science
    Wired's Neuron Culture

    , , ,

Referencias (TrackBacks)

URL de trackback de esta historia http://evolucionarios.blogalia.com//trackbacks/69771

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Hoy El País publica un reportaje titulado "Ataque al bacilo 'extraterrestre'" que se las apaña para no decir claramente que el consenso científico está más inclinado contra el hallazgo que a favor, y por supuesto obviar el papel de los periodistas científicos en la cobertura. "Deja en mal lugar a los revisores", dice, implícita la autoexcusa.



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