2005-03-07

    Hidrogenosomas y mitocondrias

    Anteriormente he comentado aquí la teoría de Lynn Margulis sobre el origen del núcleo y los undulipodios. Al hacerlo, mencioné que hay otro escenario simbiótico que explica el origen de las mitocondrias y que podría tener implicaciones también sobre el origen del núcleo. Lynn Margulis puede reclamar el crédito de la simbogénesis como origen de la célula eucariota, en particular la mitocondria y los cloroplastos, pero irónicamente el modelo simbiótico que va ganando peso no es el propuesto por ella, sino la otra teoría que mencioné: la hipótesis del hidrógeno 1.

    Hay al menos tres tipos de eucariotas atendiendo a su metabolismo respiratorio (y por tanto sus orgánulos respiratorios). La mayoría son organismos aerobios mitocondriados, pero hay un número de grupos que carecen de verdaderas mitocondrias. Durante cierto tiempo se ha pensado que estos grupos representaban la condición ancestral eucariota; la célula proto-eucariota primero adquiere núcleo y en un suceso independiente y posterior, mitocondrias. Sin embargo, filogenias realizadas recientemente nos muestran otro panorama: los organismos amitocondriados derivan de grupos mitocondriados, por lo que la pérdida de mitocondrias es un carácter secundario, una simplificación citológica como adaptación a ambientes especiales.

    Siendo esto así, no sabemos si la adquisición de núcleo y mitocondria son dos sucesos evolutivamente simultáneos o acaso dependientes, por lo que establecer con seguridad si los organismos amitocondriados descienden de organismos mitocondriados es de vital importancia.

    Margulis favorece la visión de que existen amitocondriados primitivos; la hipótesis del hidrógeno precisamente apunta a un modelo que explicaría cómo los amitocondriados podrían provenir de organismos mitocondriados. Y esto es así por la existencia de un tipo de orgánulo celular llamado hidrogenosoma que produce energía e hidrógeno como residuo. Los organismos con hidrogenosomas viven en ambientes anaerobios y carecen de mitocondrias. Las mitocondrias producen su energía generando agua como desecho. Como el agua es hidrógeno oxidado, Martin y Müller se plantearon si ambos orgánulos estarían relacionados evolutivamente y construyeron el siguiente modelo sintrófico:

    Un organismo anaerobio facultativo (en presencia de oxígeno respira, en ausencia, fermenta produciendo hidrógeno) entraría en simbiosis ecológica con un organismo metanógeno (anaerobio estricto; usa hidrógeno y produce metano). Esta relación sintrófica puede coevolucionar hacia una mayor interdependencia, culminando en la endosimbiosis. Este nuevo organismo simbionte, en condiciones anaerobias, produce metano, pero en condiciones aerobias produciría CO2 y agua.

    Este modelo explicaría la evolución de las mitocondrias, pero los hidrogenosomas podrían ser bien un estadio primitivo o una regresión de las mitocondrias al volver a condiciones anaerobias. Pero antes de preocuparnos por qué fue antes, si el huevo o la gallina, hay que averiguar si efectivamente mitocondrias e hidrogenosomas son orgánulos relacionados evolutivamente. En concreto, habría que averiguar si los hidrogenosomas poseen cadena de transporte de electrones (que permitiría la respiración),


    (Esto es un borrador para ver si salen las imágenes. Disculpad las molestias)



    1 W. Martin and M. Müller, Nature 392, 37 - 41 (05 March 1998)

Referencias (TrackBacks)

URL de trackback de esta historia http://evolucionarios.blogalia.com//trackbacks/27770

Comentarios

1
De: Beatriz Aceves Fecha: 2005-09-21 18:07

¿Qué tipo de organismos contienen hidrogenosomas? He encontrado que Trichomonas los contiene, pero qué otros organismos los contienen



2
De: melissa Fecha: 2006-09-12 19:25

los hidrogenosomas producen la misma cantidad de energia que normalmente se produce en un estado anoxico?



3
De: melissa Fecha: 2006-09-12 19:27

los hidrogenosomas producen la misma cantidad de energia que normalmente se produce en un estado anoxico normal?



4
De: melissa Fecha: 2006-09-12 19:27

los hidrogenosomas producen la misma cantidad de energia que normalmente se produce en un estado anoxico normal?



5
De: melissa Fecha: 2006-09-12 19:30

los hidrogenosomas producen la misma cantidad de energia que normalmente se produce en un estado anoxico normal?



6
De: lisbeth Fecha: 2007-04-11 04:09

estaba leyendo y me di cuenta de la siguiente pregunta ¿que fue primero los hidrogenosomas o la mitocondria?



7
De: lisbeth Fecha: 2007-04-11 04:09

estaba leyendo y me di cuenta de la siguiente pregunta ¿que fue primero los hidrogenosomas o la mitocondria?



8
De: Kahlan Fecha: 2007-06-05 12:01

Primero surgió la mitocondria por una endosimbiosis con una alfa proteobacteria. Luego aquellos eucariotas que se adataron a ambientes anaerobios modificaron sus mitocondrias para convertirlos en hidrogenosomas.



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