2004-11-04

    Origen de los ojos

    Dejemos la política de lado, que algunos pensarán que ya es hora, y hablemos un poco de ciencia.

    Hoy vamos a hablar de ojos. Desde el siglo XVIII, cuando alguien quiere hablar de complejidad en biología los ojos son el típico ejemplo que viene a la cabeza. Los teólogos naturales, encabezados por el reverendo Paley defendían que semejante perfección de diseño sólo podía explicarse por la labor industriosa de un diseñador inteligente. Darwin utiliza este ejemplo también, pero para ilustrar el grado de perfección que la evolución adaptativa puede lograr a base de la acumulación gradual de pequeñas mejoras. La paradoja del diseño se ha referido también en numerosas ocasiones como la del relojero, pues se comparaban las adaptaciones (como el ojo) con diseños humanos (los relojes). La evolución por selección natural sería una especie de relojero ciego, capaz de crear relojes de extrema precisión sin saber siquiera qué es un reloj en primer lugar, mucho menos tener una idea preconcebida del producto final. Richard Dawkins no elige llamar "ciego" al relojero sólo para señalar la falta de (pre)visión de la evolución, sino que es además un guiño al lector pues el ejemplo que utiliza es, cómo no, el diseño de los ojos.

    Pero los ojos, además de ser un buen ejemplo de la potencia de la evolución adaptativa, son un caso flagrante de evolución convergente: existen multitud de tipos de ojos, cada uno presente un tipo de animales diferente, y sin relación filogenética clara, de modo que la hipótesis más aceptada era eso, la evolución convergente. ¡Qué maravilloso el poder de la selección que puede generar diseños tan parecidos en grupos tan diferentes de manera paralela!

    El caso es que la filogenia de los grupos animales está aún sujeta a cierta controversia, pero lo que está claro es que los antiguos esquemas están más que obsoletos. Esto es motivo de discusión aparte, así que no entraré en detalles, sólo comentaré en qué ha afectado esto a nuestra visión sobre la evolución de la vista. En principio, en nada. Los ojos están presentes en animales bilaterales, triblásticos, que hoy sabemos que descienden todos de un antepasado común (urbilateria), pero sigue siendo más parsimonioso pensar en orígenes independientes, puesto que aunque reubicados, los grupos con ojos no están filogenéticamente más emparentados que el resto.

    Lo más que se puede llegar a simplificar el asunto es de la siguiente manera: existen 2 tipos de fotorreceptores, rabdoméricos y ciliados. Los ojos de los invertebrados parecen haber evolucionado (independientemente) a partir de uno de ellos (rabdoméricos) mientras que los ojos vertebrados han evolucionado a partir del otro tipo (ciliados), aunque algunos invertebrados también presentan este tipo de células.

    O eso pensabamos hasta esta semana:
    Arendt D., Tessmar-Raible K., Snyman H., Dorresteijn A. & Wittbrodt J. (2004)
    Ciliary Photoreceptors with a Vertebrate-Type Opsin in an Invertebrate Brain
    Science, 306. 869 - 871
    (comentario editorial de Elisabeth Pennisi; noticia en Nature news ).

    En este artículo se describe un invertebrado, un gusano marino (poliqueto) llamado Platynereis dumerilii que presenta los dos tipos de pigmentos típicos de los dos tipos de fotorreceptores. Los ojos poseen células rabdoméricas, pero en el cerebro de estos poliquetos se han encontrado células ciliadas. La conclusión de los autores es clara: vertebrados e invertebrados muestran evolución divergente a partir del diseño presente en su antecesor común.

    ¿Significa esto que los ojos de todos los animales tienen un único origen? Puede que sí. ¿Significa esto que todos los ojos son órganos homólogos? No tiene por qué. El concepto de homología (similitud por descendencia) se vuelve cada vez más complicado al tratar de utilizarlo a grandes distancias evolutivas. No sería el primer caso de evolución paralela.

Referencias (TrackBacks)

URL de trackback de esta historia http://evolucionarios.blogalia.com//trackbacks/22847

Comentarios

1
De: BioMaxi Fecha: 2004-11-10 12:53

Para quienes este artículo les haya resultado interesante: no os perdais el comentario de Meyers en Pharyngula.
Por una vez, yo me he adelantado, jeje. Eso sí, no hay color...



2
De: [Quique] Fecha: 2004-11-22 21:06

Magnífico hallazgo!



3
De: yo Fecha: 2005-12-01 01:58

media wea q descubriste po!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1



4
De: tipos de ciliados Fecha: 2005-12-15 01:33

necesito informacion para buscar de finicion de ellos y los distinto tipos que hayan



5
De: arlen Fecha: 2006-03-18 20:45

necesito informacion acerca del origen de los fotorreceptores y tipos de estos, ademas de la vision desde esponjas hasta moluscos



6
De: test Fecha: 2006-05-19 17:51

son puro giles culiaos



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De: Bio Fecha: 2006-06-18 03:43

Un aplauso para el gil que descubrio esta wea



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De: Anónimo Fecha: 2006-10-24 19:33

LA HUEA ESTE MAS FOME
LUIS ARIAS



9
De: Homólogo y paralelo Fecha: 2006-10-24 20:17

Las cuarenta sendas hacia la iluminación.

Así titula Richard Dawkins el capítulo de su libro “Escalando el monte improbable”, donde habla de la evolución del ojo, ese problema que producía escalofríos en Darwin, según propia confesión.
Dawkins siguiendo las teorías ortodoxas sobre el tema, en particular el clásico articulo de Salvini- Plawen y Mayr nos explica que la visión ha evolucionado de manera independiente y por separado de cuarenta a sesenta veces en el reino animal y que se han reconocido nueve tipos básicos y distintos de ojos.
La primera conclusión a la que llega Dawkins y cualquier hijo de vecino, es que si la visión ha evolucionado tantas veces de manera independiente es porque es algo fácil. Esto lo repite por activa y por pasiva.”Un mensaje fundamental de este capítulo es que los ojos evolucionan fácil y rápidamente, sin mayores problemas”.
Dawkins nos lo muestra en cincuenta amenas páginas con bonitos dibujos. Es un maestro. Los pequeños problemas y objeciones que podrían plantearse los resuelve con elegancia y algún toque humorístico: “el diafragma del iris no es una barrera evolutiva más impenetrable de lo que pueda serlo el esfínter anal”.
Ojos tipo cámara con lente, ojos compuestos, de aposición y de superposición, la imaginación darwinista desbordada. No hay fósiles de transición porque según los estándares geológicos, “la tasa de evolución es más o menos instantánea”.
Esta confianza en la selección natural que produce órganos tan complejos con tanta rapidez y abundancia, me parece algo parecido a la fe, una fe inquebrantable que resiste las evidencias contrarias como veremos más adelante.
Solo al final del extenso articulo Dawkins se enfrenta a los experimentos recientes que ponen en cuestión sus tesis, el gen eyeless de la Drosophila, puede, aplicando ingeniosos tratamientos, expresarse en antenas, alas y patas, y estas moscas manipuladas tienen ojos ectópicos completamente funcionales, y el gen small eye de los ratones indujo ojos ectópicos en la Drosophila, pero no ojos de ratón, sino ojos compuestos como corresponde a un insecto.
Las secuencias de DNA de estos genes de vertebrado e insecto son casi idénticas, el llamado PAX 6, lo que demuestra un origen común, y que el remoto antepasado común del que descienden moscas y ratones ya poseía este gen y ojos, y que esta secuencia génica posee una enorme estabilidad temporal. Dejando aparte el problema que supone para el darwinismo que los artrópodos y cordados, incluyendo vertebrados, aparecen brusca y simultáneamente en el Cámbrico inferior junto al resto de phyla bilaterales sin antecedentes fósiles divergentes, este primitivo antecesor común, ¿el mítico Urbilateria?, ya poseía un magnífico manual de instrucciones de como fabricar ojos, multiuso y adaptable a las circunstancias, que produce, junto con otros genes, los ojos más adecuados a cada animal. Un diseño inteligente, desde luego.
Dawkins es un charlatán desvergonzado que después de esta evidencia es capaz de escribir: ¿Nos equivocamos al pensar que los ojos se han desarrollado cuarenta veces de forma independiente? No lo creo así [ ] La conclusión no se tambalea por la demostración de que el antepasado común de todos estos animales probablemente poseía ojos de algún tipo, y que el desarrollo embrionario de todos los ojos parece tener suficientes rasgos comunes para ser inducible por la misma secuencia de DNA.
Un científico es aquel que intenta ver como llegó a existir este enorme bloque de información con fases intermedias darwinianas, pero al parecer han renunciado, en estas cuestiones, están callados como putas y prefieren los cuentos de hadas.



10
De: anonimo Fecha: 2006-10-31 20:32

ami me da gueb leer no me gusta pero lo que si me guntan son los chavos muy guapos como semei



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De: xxxx? Fecha: 2006-11-15 16:17

son + weones descubren pura wea



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De: mmm Fecha: 2006-11-15 16:18

esta muy bueno pero no encuentro lo que ando buscando.



13
De: noelia Fecha: 2007-03-24 16:01

hola! necesitaria informacion de las analogias y homologias de los ojos de Invertebrados y Vertebrados. desde ya muchas gracias. soy de Argentina -Catamarca.



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De: Anónimo Fecha: 2007-09-05 00:04

es una vavosada



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De: Anónimo Fecha: 2007-12-04 17:35

que galla estra la informacion



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De: hygds Fecha: 2008-06-23 22:55

necesito es por que los animales poseen ojos necesito el por que



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De: hygds Fecha: 2008-06-23 22:56

si alguien sabe no dude en decirmelo



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De: xiii Fecha: 2009-06-03 18:33

y las funciones de los fotoreceptores!!!!!!!!!????????



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De: xiii Fecha: 2009-06-03 18:37

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De: luciaanaa Fecha: 2009-07-04 00:05

gracias por los datos pero me gustaria algo sobre la evolucion en diferentes organismos



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De: luciaanaa Fecha: 2009-07-04 00:05

gracias por los datos pero me gustaria algo sobre la evolucion del sentido de la vista en diferentes organismos



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De: Cnidus Fecha: 2009-07-05 13:55

Luciaanaa, un par de enlaces :o)

1) La Evolución del Ojo. De la página "SinDioses".
2) La Evolución del Ojo. De la página "Un planeta con canas".

Saludos!



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