2004-10-13

    Madre no hay más que una...




    En un artículo de El Mundo (Hallan ranas 'piratas' que fecundan los huevos de otros machos) podemos encontrar la siguiente cita:

    <<[David] Vieites precisó que los análisis genéticos demostraron que los renacuajos nacidos de estas puestas poseen unos genes de un macho y otros del "macho pirata". >>

    Si lo he entendido bien, CADA renacuajo sería un mosaico genético, es decir, tendría una madre y VARIOS padres. No me lo creo. Como de costumbre, el artículo no facilita ninguna referencia científica ni fuente de ninguna clase, así que no puedo buscar si en efecto David Vieites afirma esto (y las pruebas genéticas lo confirman) o si, como de costumbre, se trata de otro caso más de "rigor periodístico" en el reportaje científico.

    He buscado en Google, y he encontrado este artículo de El Faro de Vigo de hace casi un mes. Dicen que el estudio se ha publicado en Nature (mira que me extraña que algo tan chocante se me haya pasado por alto...)

    El artículo en Nature lo podeis conseguir siguiendo el enlace (si estais suscritos; si no, pedidme el pdf indicando vuestro correo; en cualquier caso adjunto el abstract y un par de figuras). Después de echarle un vistazo, no detecto nada anormal. De hecho, todo lo contrario, siempre se refieren a fracción de la puesta fecundada por los piratas (insinúan que el tiempo entre distintas fecundaciones afecta al éxito del pirateo, cosa bastante lógica).

    Lamentablemente, debo concluir que se ha producido una tergiversación de la noticia (y que los de El Mundo se enteran de las noticias por la prensa) y que de resultas se está difundiendo información falsa. ¿Cuándo se empezará a tomar en serio la divulgación de noticias científicas?

    Nature 431,
    305 - 308 (16 September 2004); doi:10.1038/nature02879


    Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian
    DAVID R. VIEITES1,2,*, SANDRA NIETO-ROMÁN1,3, MARTA BARLUENGA2, ANTONIO PALANCA1, MIGUEL VENCES3 & AXEL MEYER2
    1 Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal, Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Facultade de Ciencias Biolóxicas, Universidade de Vigo, Buzón 137, 36201 Vigo, Spain
    2 Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    3 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics and Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Mauritskade 61, 1092 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    * Present address: Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative Biology, 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3160, USA 

    Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D.R.V. (vieites@berkeley.edu).

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection1-3. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals1, 4-7, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care3, 8-10. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians11-15 and fishes16 that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion
    of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females17. Sexual selection-probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio-occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection.


    Figure 1 Schematic representation of mating systems in R. temporaria. a, Females arrive at the breeding ponds and are clasped in the axillary region ('amplexus') by a male (the 'parental' male). The female deposits a single, spherical clutch of eggs. The parental male simultaneously releases his sperm and thereby fertilizes the eggs externally. Subsequently both parents leave the clutch. b, 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them and release their sperm, sometimes crawling into the clutch to gain access to the internal eggs.
    Figure 3 Percentage of fertilized eggs in clutches not exposed (grey) and exposed (black) to clutch piracy. The percentage of eggs of a clutch fertilized in the absence of piracy was 19.2-95.7% (mean s.d. = 72.9 18.0%). This percentage was not significantly different to that found for all clutches exposed to piracy (U31,25 = 308, P = 0.19), but in clutches in which the pirate had access to the interior eggs the percentage was higher (U31,12 = 80, P = 0.003). Error bars are 5% and 95% percentiles; 25% and 75% percentiles delimit the box, and the median is shown as a line. Dots represent outliers.

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Comentarios

1
De: josemi Fecha: 2004-10-14 22:54

Ya me parecia a mi que esto no puede ser....

Y que ademas es imposible. Entre otras cosas por que tal y como esta redactada la noticia, da a entender que las pobres hembras que cargan con la produccion de los huevos, al final no pasan sus genes a la siguiente generación.

Asi que no tiene sentido a la luz de la evolucion :-)



2
De: Francisco Retamal Fecha: 2006-03-29 23:19

Hola soy un estudiante de magíster en ciencias de la ULA en Chile. Y justo me encuentro realizando un seminario respecto al concepto biologico de individuos y sus atributos. Por lo que me serviria mucho este trabajo.
de antemano muchas gracias



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